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Export packaging Dos and Don'ts

1. Compliancy of standards (raw materials quality, baro units, ...)

2. Considering packages relations (eg. primary packages to secondary packages &
secondary packages to shipping packages)

3. Alerting signs and exact information on the boxes to maintain secure & proper transportation.

4. Necessity of protective materials, pad dividers and other supplementary materials in packaging

5. Attention to special age groups eg. children and elderly for easy use of package

6. Consideration of proper consuming packaging graphics for all age groups

7. Innovation in packaging forms eg. using stand packaging for more competition

8. Attention to the way of presentation and identifying distribution channels on target market

9. Attention to distribution system and factors (road type, distribution environment)

10. Reducing load unit weight for more security considering material type

11. Determining pallet type, container type and transportation vehicle for proper layout

12. Reducing package sizes to minimizing raw material consumption

13. Proper geometrical for minimum storage space

14. Reducing packaging & transportation costs as much as possible

15. Multipurpose package and ability for other consumptions and multiple usage

16. Attention to similar competitors' packages on market

17. Optimized space usage and volume reduction after consumption

18. Avoiding package making with multiple pieces as much as possible

19. Flexibility in various forms

20. Determination of "count per load" unit and attention to storage layout issues

21. Attention to goods security (in warehouse, in shipping, ...)

22. Attention to costumers' traditions of society and culture and consumption patterns

23. Being in harmony of form and color with the product in export packaging

24. Considering ergonomic and aesthetic indexes in packaging and creating attraction

25. Consideration of ecological issues and not using non-recyclable materials

26. Attention to printing and related issues (method, circulation, color count, ...)

27. Consideration of Ecological laws and regulations in target countries

28. Foreseeing future changes and matching the packaging with them


Benefits of Sorting and Packaging Fruits

- Sorting fruits as Excellent - Top-notch - Second-rate - Remainder Top-notch & Second-rate
and using it in lateral industries .

- Numerical observing of the product for purchase based on needs and avoiding prodigality.

- Inserting maintenance conditions of fruits and vegetables in order to reduce wastes.

- Inserting properties on fruits.

- Inserting taste types (sour, sweet, sweet-and-sour).

- Application type, eg. potato for frying or for boiled consumption.

- Inserting cultivation location.

- Ease of presentation and distribution.

- Preventing the imposition of overloads on Customers.


Packaging Fruits & Citrus

The damages after harvesting fruits and vegetables varies from 20% to 50% before reaching to consumers.
Naturally, fruits humidity is variable 70% up to 95% and relative humidity (ERH) is approximately above 98% .
Storing vegetables in normal atmospheric conditions makes them dry fast and eventually aged and wilted.
Thus the main goal of packaging fruits & vegetables is to protect the contents of the box during the storage,
shipping and distribution against the internal corruption which might be physical, chemical or biological.


Packaging could be done in the stage of production, processing or in distribution centres.
Although this will take place in the final stages of supply chain, storage, marketing or distribution, still it plays
an important role in safe delivery of contents from production to consumption.
Production increase is only effective in consumption market when products, are brought to costumers
with high standards, under hygienic situations and economic price.


As stated, lots of fruits and vegetables during the distribution & supply chain, will rot or get below the standards.
This amount of waste makes shortage of product and as a result prices will increase.
Packaging wastes is related to wrong methods and insufficient transportation facilities.


Packaging is defined as preservation of products or items enclosed in sacks, boxes, cups, trays,
cans, tubes, bottles or any other container that includes pollution prevention, conservation and
ease of transportation.


From the 1970's, rapid growth in new processing technologies or foods packaging has emerged.
There were many factors in increase of growth speed for short-term & long-term conservation of foods
which are :


A. Recent developments in new polymeric preservetives production & consumption for packaging

B. Increase of urbanism

C. Market needs and increase of consumer demands

D. Increase of energy


Foods packaging technologies has massively changed because of these factors.
Currently, packaging gives many information to consumer and on the other hand, will be used as an effective tool in marketing.
For the packaging industry to be specifically a more widespread tool than its former situation, it has gone beyond its unique primary protective role
and has evolved.


Nowadays, there are many packaging materials on market, each one designed with unique properties.
Choosing packaging, not only needs physical & chemical knowledge and fruits microbiological properties but also depends on application characteristics of
available packaging materials for a specific product or protective technology.


Packaging function :

Two main packaging functions are :

1. Gathering the product in proper units for moving

2. Protecting the product during the stages of distribution, storage and marketing.
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Nowadays, new packings to supply a wide range of "fresh products needs" has been designed
and their most important necessary properties could be summarized as :


A. Packings, for stacking during the moving & shipping must have enough mechanical strength to save contents .

B. Packaging materials should'nt have chemicals in them that could transfer into foods and cause toxicity.

C. Packaging must meet the needs of transportation and marketing based on weight, size and shape.
Recent procedure towards the size reduction and various packaging shapes is being done by unifying the packaging.
Pallet-making and mechanical control, makes the unification essential for the economic performance.

D. Packings must have the possibility to instant cooling of the contents. Also
the permeability of plastic foils to gases is of crucial importance.

E. Easy unfold & closing could be important in marketing conditions of the product.

F. Packaging shape must be such to showcase its contents.

G. Sometimes packaging should pass the light or be transparent.

H. Packaging must be an assistance to presentation in wholesales.

I. Sometimes packaging will be designed for the ease of discard, reusage or recycling.

J. Reduction of packaging cost as much as possible.



Packaging prevents the corruption of fresh fruits and vegetables or largely postpones it, yet improper packaging increases product wastes.
Packaging must save the products from contamination, damage, and excessive humidity.
Besides, lack of an extra humidity deterrent could increase the relative humidity in packaging and because of micro-organisms,
or surface scratch of some fruits it might lead to decay of the products.


Packaging container types :

After harvesting, fruits and vegetables are put in various containers and carried out from the farm to the wholesalers.
Often, methods used by the developed countries are similar.

Farm containers :

Gathering containers or harvesting containers in the farm, depends on product type, region and available materials are of different kinds.
In different regions of the world, wooden or plastic boxes, bags made of hemp & burlap or tarpaulin, nets baskets wowen by flexible stems are widely used.

Transportation containers :

Transportation containers are used for the ease of moving various agricultural products.
Packaging for transportation and control, needs proper containers that could save the products from
crushing, shock and vibration, weight of stacked containers and rise or fall of environmental temperature.

containers must be strong enough to place on each other for a good number without getting damaged because of pressure.
In addition, they shouldn't affect the ventilation of Oxygen and CO2, but simoltaneously have the heat repulsion ability of fresh fruits respiration.
Ideal packaging includes 1 full doored container with no bumps on it that has enough strength to preserve package contents under any circumstances.

In most developed countries, due to considering health issues, transportation containers are used only one time and get recycled.
But in some developing countries, these containers will mostly returned or sold to the bearing company.


Packaging materials :

In the market commercially, packaging materials with different special functions for packing fresh fruits & vegetables
are available, including: wood, cloth, paper and plastic.


- Wood and textile


Wooden containers are used traditionally for bulk carrying fruits & vegetables to the market.
Wood, shows good mechanical protection, proper stacking properties and bearing high weight.
However, this material isn't a proper gas & humidity deterrent and could be a source of pollution itself.
Gradually, by entering materials such as polystyrene, polypropylene, polyethylene, these materials
have replaced wooden containers which are both lighter and have lower transportation costs.

Cloth packagings like hemp gunnysacks, are still being used in market for bulk carrying fruits & vegetables in small quantities.
It should be noted that hemp gunnysacks despite being durable and having high resistance to rupture,
they have little traction abilities, and are weak deterrents to humidity & gases and they will get exposed to
mold cavities, hence the multiwalled paper bags must be replaced with them.


- Paper and Cardboard :


Nowadays in most parts of the world, paper and cardboard are the most common packaging materials.
This packaging forms 30% of the 70 million tons of produced paper products per year, worth nearly 16 billion dollars in the market.

Pulpwood is obtained by alkaline or acid hydrolysis of wood pieces.
In this case, the pulpwood will stay afloat in water and get pounded by rotating propellers, there are blades for cellulose fibers to be divided longitudinally in this section.
Then the fibers will get refined and for reducing moisture will get passed through the thermal rollers.
In the end for giving the ultimate surface properties to paper, fibers will go through the final rollers.


Various types of paper & cardboard containers, that are used as food packaging are shown below.



Common papers in packaging :

- Paper / Application / Properties

Craft paper / Paper bag & basket / Brown (unwhitewashed paper) , Good strength and rupture resistant

White paper / White craft bag, wrapping paper / White, slight strength

Parchment / Butter & margarin package paper / Semi-transparent paper proccesed with sulfuric acid

Oil paper / Wrapping paper with proper oil resistance / High density paper, galvanized surface

Glycine / Sweet paper / Oil resistant paper with high density, semi-transparent, fragile

Tissue paper / Lightweight and protective against dust and abrasion / produced from pulpwood

Cardboard / Carton, box, package internal insulator / Compressed pulpwood

Grooved cardboard / Bigger packaging for many products / Thick paper sheets



- Paper :

Craft paper is considered a very strong paper, made of at least 80% pulpwood sulphate.
This paper is affordable for making grocery bags, multiwalled bags, carrying bags specially
bags for bulk packaging of powders, flour, sugar, fruits & vegetables that need strength.
White papers despite being more expensive, are weaker than normal papers but have amazing printabilty.


Parchment is made of pulpwood sulphate and is passing sulfuric acid bath for production. This paper has a
more intact surface than craft paper, therefore shows more resistance against humudity & oil than craft paper
and for this feature, it's being used for packing butter & pastry oil.

Sulfite paper is lighter and acts weaker than sulphate paper.
Oilproof paper is made of sulfite woodpulp and for producing it with more compact structure, the fibers will get pounded more completely.
When this paper is dry, it shows more resistance against grease & oils, so if it gets wet, it'll loose this attribute.
These materials are used for packaging products such as margarin, french fries, multi-layer bags internal lining and composite cans lining to pack frozen juices.